This figure shows the basic requirements of an individual human; the basic structure of a single social system is identical.
I assume that humans as well as social systems – including states – must fulfil a number of basic requirements to ensure their survival. Basic requirements can be grouped in four domains.
Four sets of basic requirements – domains – can be distinguished: Humans and social systems must ensure (1) energy input – e.g. the input of basic resources – (2) security against threats, (3) the ability to make sense, for which identity is essential, and (4) integration, to ensure a certain balance between all four sets of requirements, and with the external environment.
Basic requirements – their domains – to a certain degree overlap and are complementary: (psychological) security can be accomplished through the development of a certain identity, and requires the ability to make sense of the environment, etc.
Humans and social systems communicate and cooperate – connect to other humans and social systems – to exploit economies of scale and scope, which enhances their well-being and survival changes. The basic building blocks of social systems are humans.
Humans are the basic building of social Systems: The System consists of a ‘network of (‘nested’) networks’.
Depending on for example the primary function of a social system, humans (or social systems) connect with certain basic requirements (domains) of other individuals and/or social systems. An religious organisation is primarily about the connection of sense making and identity requirements (domains) of other individuals and/or social systems.
This figure shows how individuals and social systems connect their sense making and identity requirements.
States – also social systems – must survive in an anarchistic environment. In anarchistic environments, states are ultimately responsible for the fulfilment of their own basic requirements, including their security.
In anarchistic systems, states can cooperate and/or must compete with other states for the fulfilment of their basic requirements. In anarchistic systems connectivity and security are incompatible, and interactions between states result in tensions.
Interactions between states in the anarchistic System results in tensions.
If certain basic requirements (domains) become dominant, the individual human, or social system becomes unbalanced: the European Union is unbalanced because of a dominant and dysfunctional integrative subsystem; Brexit is the result of a combination of an inaccurate self-image (sense making domain), and integrative subsystem that has problems with defining realistic ambitions.