Social systems, including states, the (International) System, but also cities, qualify as ‘complex adaptive systems’ (Source: social-physics.net)
Social systems – including states and the System – can be considered ‘complex adaptive systems’ (CAS), which process data with ‘schemata’, that inform these CAS about courses of action that support their survival changes. Regularities provide guidance to CAS.
Regularities in the System arise from a combination of simple fundamental laws and the operation of change, which can produce ‘frozen accidents’. Path dependence and lock-in (further) contribute to the magnification of regularities. Complex adaptive systems seem to function best in a régime intermediate between order and disorder.